The Abductive Method
December 2, 2010
I’ve enjoyed watching the first three episodes of BBC’s Sherlock (aired this fall in the US; starring Benedict Cumberbatch and the brilliant Martin Freeman as Dr. Watson), particularly because doing so prompted me to revisit the notes I took, then put aside, when reading The Sign of Three (1983), a collection of essays about Arthur Conan Doyle’s character and the semiotician C.S. Peirce — or more precisely, Peirce’s theory of a little-understood mode of reasoning he named “abduction.”
[Sixth in an occasional series cross-posted from Semionaut, a blog co-edited by the author.]
Deduction, according to Peirce, proceeds from rule/guess (e.g., “All the beans from this bag are white”) to case (“These beans are from this bag”) to result/observation (“These beans are white”), whereas induction proceeds rather more tediously — from case to result to rule. I say “tediously” because a guess based upon both case and result/observation is a safe, habitual guess; detectives, who form hypotheses and then test them against the case (evidence), are more romantic figures. However, the authors included in the book mentioned above — including Thomas A. Sebeok, Marcello Truzzi, Carlo Ginzburg, Jaakko Hintikka, and Umberto Eco — pooh-pooh Holmes’ vaunted powers of deduction. Though Doyle’s stories do a terrific job explaining how deduction ought to work, Holmes’ skill at solving crimes is due, they claim, to a brilliant abductive ability — i.e., the ability to proceed, swiftly and with unerring accuracy, from rule/guess to result/observation to case.
Like the deductive reasoner, the abductive reasoner begins with a rule/guess: e.g., “All the beans from this bag are white.” By comparing a result/observation (“These beans are white”) against the rule, though, the abductive reasoner doesn’t seek to test the validity of her hypothesis, but instead to detect any deviations from it. Which shouldn’t exist!
Abduction is something that all of us do, claims Peirce; in fact, it’s a hard-wired survival mechanism. However, he and Sebeok, et al., agree that some of us are particularly adept at abductive reasoning. Some of us see and remember more, so we’re superior at formulating rules/guesses; and then, when we compare a result/observation against one of our rules/guesses, we do so ultra-efficiently — in an almost holographic fashion. Those of us thus skilled at detecting deviations from law-like hypotheses are therefore able to see the reason why “like a flash,” claims Peirce. What’s more, the act of abduction is in such cases accompanied by a “peculiar musical emotion,” a thrill.
Sounds like Sherlock Holmes — his monographs on cigarette butts or corpses’ bruises, his lightning-fast insights, even his boredom and mood swings. The new BBC adaptation dramatizes Holmes’ holographic ability to compare a result/observation against one of his rules/guesses by causing words, patterns, and symbols to hover in the air before his face [shown above]. He’s viewing the evidence not empirically, we’re given to understand, but from the perspective of his own constructed universe: if Holmes’ hunches are always correct, it’s only because this is fiction.
Though he insists that his method is a strictly deductive one, at various points in the Holmes canon, Conan Doyle’s detective advocates the use of “imagination,” “intuition,” and “speculation.” This explains why his so-called deductions so often lead Holmes to make revelations which appear almost magical; and this is why Holmes despairs of colorless, boring cases. He’s an obsessive, quasi-apophenic pattern-maker. When he finds a flaw in the pattern, he’s thrilled; when he doesn’t, he’s bored. He’s an obsessive-compulsive overjoyed and outraged to find reality out of order.
Holmes sounds, in this analysis, like a semionaut — i.e., a prodigy able to draw expertly and productively upon phenomenological knowledge when “reading” various signs. Yes, Holmes is a semionaut. However, I’m not always impressed with the immutable laws of nature and society of which Holmes has convinced himself. Though he says “I make a point of never having any prejudices” (“The Reigate Puzzle”), not a few of Holmes’ rules — about the habits of women, say, or foreigners — sound, to the contemporary reader, like prejudices. In the third episode of Sherlock, when Cumberbatch takes one look at a woman’s boyfriend and says, simply, “Gay” — same thing, right?
I’m not saying that Holmes is merely a brilliant bigot, like (say) G.K. Chesterton’s fun detective character, Father Brown, who solves crimes thanks to his hilarious Catholic prejudices against atheists, legalists, and Presbyterians. But he’s uncannily similar to a brilliant bigot. It’s mysterious!
The game is afoot.
MORE FURSHLUGGINER THEORIES BY JOSH GLENN: TAKING THE MICKEY (series) | KLAATU YOU (series intro) | We Are Iron Man! | And We Lived Beneath the Waves | Is It A Chamber Pot? | I’d Like to Force the World to Sing | The Argonaut Folly | The Perfect Flâneur | The Twentieth Day of January | The Dark Side of Scrabble | The YHWH Virus | Boston (Stalker) Rock | The Sweetest Hangover | The Vibe of Dr. Strange | CONVOY YOUR ENTHUSIASM (series intro) | Tyger! Tyger! | Star Wars Semiotics | The Original Stooge | Fake Authenticity | Camp, Kitsch & Cheese | Stallone vs. Eros | The UNCLE Hypothesis | Icon Game | Meet the Semionauts | The Abductive Method | Semionauts at Work | Origin of the Pogo | The Black Iron Prison | Blue Krishma! | Big Mal Lives! | Schmoozitsu | You Down with VCP? | Calvin Peeing Meme | Daniel Clowes: Against Groovy | The Zine Revolution (series) | Best Adventure Novels (series) | Debating in a Vacuum (notes on the Kirk-Spock-McCoy triad) | Pluperfect PDA (series) | Double Exposure (series) | Fitting Shoes (series) | Cthulhuwatch (series) | Shocking Blocking (series) | Quatschwatch (series)
MORE SEMIOSIS at HILOBROW: Towards a Cultural Codex | CODE-X series | DOUBLE EXPOSURE Series | CECI EST UNE PIPE series | Star Wars Semiotics | Icon Game | Meet the Semionauts | Show Me the Molecule | Science Fantasy | Inscribed Upon the Body | The Abductive Method | Enter the Samurai | Semionauts at Work | Roland Barthes | Gilles Deleuze | Félix Guattari | Jacques Lacan | Mikhail Bakhtin | Umberto Eco
What do you think?
The Awl wrote about the new Holmes a while ago:
1962: Douglas Engelbart’s “Augmenting Human Intellect” claims that advances in computing technology will steadily increase the capability of men and women to solve complex problems easily.
“By ‘augmenting human intellect’ we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems. Increased capability in this respect is taken to mean a mixture of the following: more-rapid comprehension, better comprehension, the possibility of gaining a useful degree of comprehension in a situation that previously was too complex, speedier solutions, better solutions, and the possibility of finding solutions to problems that before seemed insoluble. And by ‘complex situations’ we include the professional problems of diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, attorneys, designers—whether the problem situation exists for twenty minutes or twenty years. We do not speak of isolated clever tricks that help in particular situations. We refer to a way of life in an integrated domain where hunches, cut-and-try, intangibles, and the human ‘feel for a situation’ usefully co-exist with powerful concepts, streamlined terminology and notation, sophisticated methods, and high-powered electronic aids.”
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